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install openvpn server on debian6
November 4, 2009
Install OpenVPN Make sure your package repositories and installed programs are up to date by issuing the following commands: apt-get update apt-get upgrade --show-upgraded Begin by installing the OpenVPN software and the udev dependency with the following command: apt-get install openvpn udev The OpenVPN package provides a set of encryption-related tools called "easy-rsa". These scripts are located by default in the /usr/share/doc/openvpn/examples/easy-rsa/ directory. However, in order to function properly, these scripts should be located in the /etc/openvpn directory. Copy these files with the following command: cp -R /usr/share/doc/openvpn/examples/easy-rsa/ /etc/openvpn Most of the relevant configuration for the OpenVPN public key infrastructure is contained in /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/, and much of our configuration will be located in this directory. Configure Public Key Infrastructure Variables Before you can generate the public key infrastructure for OpenVPN, you must configure a few variables that the easy-rsa scripts will use to generate the scripts. These variables are set near the end of the /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/vars file. Here is an example of the relevant values: File:/etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/vars export KEY_COUNTRY="US" export KEY_PROVINCE="OH" export KEY_CITY="Oxford" export KEY_ORG="My Organization" export KEY_EMAIL="email@example.com" Alter the examples to reflect your configuration. This information will be included in certificates you create and it is important that the information be accurate, particularly the KEY_ORG and KEY_EMAIL values. Initialize the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Issue the following three commands in sequence to initialize the certificate authority and the public key infrastructure: cd /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/ . /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/vars . /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/clean-all . /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/build-ca These scripts will prompt you to enter a number of values. If you set the correct values in vars, you will be able to press return at each prompt. Generate Certificates and Private Keys With the certificate authority configured, you can generate the private key for the server. To accomplish this, issue the following command, changing "server" to the name of your OpenVPN server. . /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/build-key-server server This script will also prompt you for additional information. By default, the Common Name for this key will be "server". You can change these values in cases where it makes sense to use alternate values. The challenge password and company names are optional and can be left blank. When you've completed the question section you can confirm the signing of the certificate and the "certificate requests certified" by answering "yes" to these questions. With the private keys generated, we can create certificates for all of the VPN clients. Issue the following command, replacing "client1" with the name of your first OpenVPN client. . /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/build-key client1 Replace the client1 parameter with a relevant identifier for each client. You will want to generate a unique key for every user of the VPN. Each key should have it's own unique identifier. All other information can remain the same. If you need to add users to your OpenVPN at any time, repeat this step to create additional keys. Generate Diffie Hellman Parameters The "Diffie Hellman Parameters" govern the method of key exchange and authentication used by the OpenVPN server. Issue the following command to generate these parameters: . /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/build-dh This should produce the following output: Generating DH parameters, 1024 bit long safe prime, generator 2 This is going to take a long time This will be followed by a quantity of seemingly random output. The task has succeeded. Relocate Secure Keys The /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/keys/ directory contains all of the keys that you have generated using the easy-rsa tools. In order to authenticate to the VPN, you'll need to copy a number of certificate and key files to the remote client machines. They are: > ca.crt client1.crt client1.key You can use the scp tool, or any other means of transferring. Be advised, these keys should transferred with the utmost attention to security. Anyone who has the key or is able to intercept an unencrypted copy of the key will be able to gain full access to your virtual private network. We recommend that you encrypt the keys for transfer, either by using a protocol like SSH, or by encrypting them with the GPG tool. The keys and certificates for the server need to be relocated to the /etc/openvpn directory so the OpenVPN server process can access them. These files are: > ca.crt ca.key dh1024.pem server.crt server.key Issue the following commands, substituting your actual filenames for "server.crt" and "server.key." cd /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/keys cp ca.crt ca.key dh1024.pem server.crt server.key /etc/openvpn These files need not leave your server. Maintaining integrity and control over these files is of the utmost importance to the integrity of your server. If you ever need to move or back up these keys, ensure that they're encrypted and secured. If these files are compromised, they will need to be recreated along with all client keys. Revoking Client Certificates If you need to remove a user's access to the VPN server, issue the following command sequence. . /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/vars . /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/revoke-full client1 This will revoke the ability of users who have the client1 certificate to access the VPN. For this reason, keeping track of which users are in possession of which certificates is crucial. Configure the Virtual Private Network We'll now need to configure our server file. There is an example file in /usr/share/doc/openvpn/examples/sample-config-files. Issue the following sequence of commands to retrieve the example configuration file and move it to the /etc/openvpn directory: cd /usr/share/doc/openvpn/examples/sample-config-files gunzip -d server.conf.gz cp server.conf /etc/openvpn/ cp client.conf ~/ cd ~/ Modify the remote line in your ~/client.conf file to reflect the OpenVPN server's name. File:~/client.conf # The hostname/IP and port of the server. # You can have multiple remote entries # to load balance between the servers. remote example.com 1194 Edit the client.conf file to reflect the name of your key. In this example we use client1 for the file name. File:~/client.conf # SSL/TLS parms. # See the server config file for more # description. It's best to use # a separate .crt/.key file pair # for each client. A single ca # file can be used for all clients. > ca ca.crt cert client1.crt key client1.key Copy the ~/client1.conf file to your client system. You'll need to repeat the entire key generation and distribution process for every user and every key that will connect to your network. Connect to the VPN To initialize the OpenVPN server process, run the following command: /etc/init.d/openvpn start This will scan the /etc/openvpn directory on the server for files with a .conf extension. For every file that it finds, it will create and run a VPN daemon (server). The process for connecting to the VPN varies depending on your specific operating system and distribution running on the client machine. You will need to install the OpenVPN package for your operating system if you have not already done so. Most network management tools provide some facility for managing connections to a VPN. Configure connections to your OpenVPN through the same interface where you might configure wireless or ethernet connections. If you choose to install and manage OpenVPN manually, you will need to place the the client1.conf file and the requisite certificate files in the local machine's /etc/openvpn directory or equivalent location. If you use Mac OS X, we have found that the Tunnelblick tool provides an easy method for managing OpenVPN connections. If you use Windows, the OpenVPN GUI tool may be an effective tool for managing your connections too. Linux desktop users can install the OpenVPN package and use the network management tools that come with your desktop environment. Using OpenVPN Connect Remote Networks Securely With the VPN Once configured, the OpenVPN server allows you to encrypt traffic between your local computer and your Linode's local network. While all other traffic is handled in the conventional manner, the VPN allows traffic on non-public interfaces to be securely passed through your Linode. This will also allow you to connect to the local area network in your Linode's data center if you are using the LAN to connect to multiple Linodes in the same datacenter. Using OpenVPN in this manner is supported by the default configuration, and if you connect to the OpenVPN you have configured at this point, you will have access to this functionality. Tunnel All Connections through the VPN By deploying the following configuration, you will be able to forward all traffic from client machines through your Linode, and encrypt it with transport layer security (TLS/SSL) between the client machine and the Linode. Begin by adding the following parameter to the /etc/openvpn/server.conf file to enable "full tunneling": File excerpt:/etc/openvpn/server.conf push "redirect-gateway def1" Now edit the /etc/sysctl.conf file to uncomment or add the following line to ensure that your system is able to forward IPv4 traffic: File excerpt:/etc/sysctl.conf net.ipv4.ip_forward=1 Issue the following command to set this variable for the current session: echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward Issue the following commands to configure iptables to properly forward traffic through the VPN: iptables -A FORWARD -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -s 10.8.0.0/24 -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -j REJECT iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 10.8.0.0/24 -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE Before continuing, insert these iptables rules into your system's /etc/rc.local file to ensure that theses iptables rules will be recreated following your next reboot cycle: File excerpt:/etc/rc.local #!/bin/sh -e # # [...] # iptables -A FORWARD -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -s 10.8.0.0/24 -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -j REJECT iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 10.8.0.0/24 -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE exit 0 Add the following directive to the /etc/openvpn/server.conf file: File excerpt:/etc/openvpn/server.conf push "dhcp-option DNS 22.214.171.124" Finally, before attempting to connect to the VPN in any configuration, restart the OpenVPN server and dnsmasq by issuing the following commands: /etc/init.d/openvpn restart Once these configuration options have been implemented, you can test the VPN connection by connecting to the VPN from your local machine, and access one of the many websites that will display your IP address. If the IP address displayed matches the IP address of your Linode, all network traffic from your local machine will be filtered through your Linode and encrypted over the VPN between your Linode and your local machine. If, however, your apparent public IP address is different from your Linode's IP address, your traffic is not being filtered through your Linode or encrypted by the VPN. referrence: http://library.linode.com/networking/openvpn/debian-6-squeeze#sph_configure-public-key-infrastructure-variables http://www.ixpub.net/thread-2060644-1-1.html http://hi.baidu.com/baoyu05/blog/item/3f51ad1e66f3db1a40341764.html http://blog.163.com/gm8pleasure@126/blog/static/25798077200792641341846/ http://www.douban.com/note/200722287/ http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_4d0c0e0301009ms5.html